In urban bathhouses in Germany and the surrounding low countries, bathhouse proprietors, known as baders, provided visitors with basic medical care. To draw blood, baders would scratch the skin before placing a heated cupping glass over the incision to extract blood and purge the body. Other tools associated with baders, including dental forceps and an amputation saw, hint at further services they provided.
Bathing Through the Ages: 1300–1848
Clare Watson | Mar 1, 2023 | 2 min read
Public bathing, ubiquitous around the world and through the ages, plays an often-unappreciated role in public health.
A fruit bat in the hands of a researcher
How an Early Warning Radar Could Prevent Future Pandemics
Amos Zeeberg, Undark | Feb 27, 2023 | 8 min read
Metagenomic sequencing can help detect unknown pathogens, but its widespread use faces challenges.
Improve qPCR Efficiency and Reproducibility
The Components of Effective qPCR
Bio-Rad | 1 min read
Putting the pieces together for molecular diagnostics and infectious disease research
A cluster of spiral-shaped Treponema pallidum bacteria, the causative agent of syphilis.
Science Falls Behind as Syphilis Stages Another Comeback
Bhargavi Duvvuri, Undark | Feb 21, 2023 | 6 min read
Syphilis is among the oldest known sexually-transmitted infections. Scientists still struggle to detect and treat it.
A mother mouse breastfeeds her offspring
Fast-Acting Nonhormonal Male Birth Control Prevents Pregnancy in Mice
Katherine Irving | Feb 15, 2023 | 5 min read
The “on demand” drug immobilizes sperm rather than limit their production, preventing 100 percent of pregnancies in an experiment.
What Could Cause the Next Pandemic?
What Could Cause the Next Pandemic?
The Scientist’s Creative Services Team | 2 min read
Scientists prepare for the future by filling in the research gaps between zoonotic viral reservoirs, emerging viruses, and human immune defenses.
Microscopy view of cancerous human cervix cells stained violet.
Why Some HPV Infections Carry More Cervical Cancer Risk
Dan Robitzski | Feb 2, 2023 | 5 min read
Where and how human papillomavirus integrates itself into the human genome steers the infection’s clinical outcomes, finds a large, multifaceted study.
a newly hatched mosquito sits on top of water, with its discarded cocoon floating below
In Vitro Malaria Sporozoite Production May Lead to Cheaper Vaccines
Katherine Irving | Jan 20, 2023 | 4 min read
A method for culturing the infectious stage of the Plasmodium lifecycle could increase malaria vaccine production efficiency by tenfold, study authors say.
COVID-19: Lessons Learned
COVID-19: Lessons Learned
The Scientist’s Creative Services Team | 2 min read
An expert panel will discuss what researchers have learned from the COVID-19 pandemic and what lessons remain for the future. 
three black mice lined up next to each other. the one on the left, fed a low-fat diet, has one small bald patch, the middle mouse, fed fish oil, has a large bald spot across its shoulders and back, and the right mouse, fed cocoa butter, has no baldness.
Fish Oil in Diet Can Cause Hair Loss in Mice, Study Finds
Katherine Irving | Jan 19, 2023 | 3 min read
The oil’s omega-3 fatty acids accumulate in the mice’s skin, triggering an immune response that causes hair loss.
a hand reaches towards a pack of cigarettes
Newly Identified Neural Signature of Drug Craving Could Predict Drug Use
Katherine Irving | Jan 11, 2023 | 4 min read
The signature could one day be used to improve treatment planning for people with substance abuse disorders.
One Sequence, Many Variations
Van Andel Institute | 5 min read
Andrew Pospisilik explores the epigenetic changes that give organisms the plasticity to change in response to their environments.
A man working at a computer late at night
Shift Work Early in Life Results in Increased Stroke Severity in Middle Age
Jennifer Zieba, PhD | Jan 11, 2023 | 3 min read
Researchers found that shifted sleep/wake cycles in young rats result in increased functional deficits and mortality following stroke later in life.
3D image of monkeypox virus.
Monkeypox Virus Has Potential to Be Sexually Transmitted
Jennifer Zieba, PhD | Jan 9, 2023 | 4 min read
Researchers discovered monkeypox virus in primate testicular tissues.
Exposed: Environmental Echoes in Health - A Special Podcast Series
The Scientist’s Creative Services Team and Van Andel Institute | 2 min read
Epigenetic experts discuss how environment and diet leave lasting impressions on the human genome.
A black-and-white photo of a person’s hands holding a black-and-white barred chicken. The feathers of its breast have been pulled back to reveal a large tumor.
Transmissible Tumors, 1909
Katherine Irving | Jan 2, 2023 | 2 min read
Pathologist Peyton Rous made a groundbreaking discovery in the early 20th century, but his work wasn’t widely recognized until more than 40 years later. 
Smartphone open Twitter application
Notable Science Quotes
The Scientist Staff | Dec 14, 2022 | 2 min read
Leaving Twitter, improving science communication, understanding the dangers of avian flu, and more
Long COVID: The Knowns and Unknowns
Long COVID: The Knowns and Unknowns
The Scientist’s Creative Services Team | 1 min read
Manali Mukherjee and Grace Lam discuss the presentation and implications of chronic, long-term COVID-19 infections.
a person pours whiskey into a glass held by another person, with a smoking cigar in a tray in front
Study of Millions Finds Genetic Links to Smoking and Drinking 
Katherine Irving | Dec 9, 2022 | 3 min read
In the largest study of its kind, scientists find nearly 4,000 genetic variants that may predispose people to alcohol and tobacco use behaviors. 
A woman wearing a gray sweater and a bright orange scarf and hat blows her nose vaguely in the direction of the camera. A snowy landscape can be seen behind her.
How Cold Weather May Help You Catch a Cold
Dan Robitzski | Dec 6, 2022 | 3 min read
Warm nasal cells mount stronger defenses against cold-causing coronaviruses and rhinoviruses than those exposed to cooler temperatures, an in vitro experiment finds.